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Book Review: “Buttermilk and Bible Burgers”

Posted by | November 6, 2014

lisa king dolloffPlease welcome guest writer Lisa King Dolloff. Dolloff, a journalist at Communities Digital News, was born and educated in Southwest Virginia (Emory & Henry). She traveled with her job all over America in her twenties and early thirties, then came back to the mountains to raise her daughter. “I’ve been employed as everything from a quality control technician in industrial construction, to a mail processing plant manager, to postmaster of a small town,” she says. “I come from a long line of story tellers, and will shamelessly exploit a family tree resplendent with colorful and unique characters, both past and present.”

 

In Buttermilk and Bible Burgers, Fred Sauceman’s latest book about the art of Appalachian cooking, he has once again demonstrated his ability to capture the essence of the people. Not only does the reader get some great recipes, but the unique way of life in one of the poorest regions in the country comes to life in a way that makes us forget about the poverty and yearn to meet the rich assortment of people he features.

For those unfamiliar with Appalachian ways, it is one thing to get a wave from a front porch when driving by but quite another to be invited into the kitchen. The misleading stereotypes that still plague the region have made the people cautious about opening up too much for fear of being misinterpreted.

Sauceman not only gets into the kitchens of Appalachia, he has gathered a collection of stories that provide an accurate portrayal of the reverence of a good meal in the region by taking the time to get to know the people who wield the iron skillet with such skill.

Buttermilk and Bible Burgers cover

Perhaps the most telling statement of the entire book is “Appalachia is sustainable without saying it.” Long before it was fashionable to plant a garden, and “buy local” appeared on bumper stickers, each spring the gardens were laid out in wistful anticipation of that first fresh garden tomato.

The gardening and gathering were not complete until a colorful array of jars, jugs and hanging pork filled pantries and smokehouses. With the preparations complete, the families had the satisfaction of knowing that come what may, they would not go hungry.

The book is divided into three sections; “The People,” “The Products,” and “The Places.” Sauceman seamlessly takes the reader on a joyful romp through Appalachian kitchens, farms and restaurants while introducing us to a diversity of characters we would love to get to know better. He portrays the region so accurately one can almost hear the snap of freshly harvested beans being prepared for the cooking pot and the lively banter that often accompanies the task.

Writing a book review is usually a simple task; either you like the book or you do not. But as a native Appalachian I will confess the book had my undivided attention from the first chapter about memories of frog gigging in the summer time.

Frog legs were a tasty staple and another source of protein long before “The Cooking Channel” introduced the rest of the country to the southern Appalachian tradition. It is yet another demonstration of the resourcefulness of the people and their ability to always find a way to get by.

It is hard to be non-biased when each story reminds me of people and places I know and love. My Great Aunt Lessie is long gone now but I can still hear echoing in my mind her solution to unexpected dinner guests. “Just add some flour and water to the pot and stir it up a while.” I don’t know how many times she pulled this on me, but I do know she cooked some of the best meals I’ve ever eaten. Thank you Mr. Sauceman for reminding me of her culinary wizardry.

If you want to know what the people and the food of Appalachia are really like, ignore the endless parade of Appalachian based “reality shows” and pick up Buttermilk and Bible Burgers instead. Long after the current fad fades away, Sauceman’s collection of books will stand as a lasting testament to the hardworking people of the region and the love they put into preparing a good meal.

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In This Land: The Camp Lyndhurst Saga / German Prisoners of War in The Old Dominion

Posted by | November 5, 2014

A new feature documentary from Alpha Vision Films

James OvertonPlease welcome guest author James Overton. “I find the ‘team’ quality of filmmaking deeply rewarding,” says the producer and director of Alpha Vision Films, Waynesboro, VA. “One can’t make films alone. So it’s necessary to assemble a group of interested associates, all with their own distinct talents, knowledge and experience. Then the ‘team’ combines their efforts towards a common creative goal, the envisioning, execution and completion of a film. Naturally, as producer and director at Alpha Vision Films, much of this responsibility rests squarely on my shoulders. But in the end, it’s a team effort all the way.” Overton’s recently completed documentary In This Land: The Camp Lyndhurst Saga / German Prisoners of War in The Old Dominion explores a little known and fascinating chapter in Virginia history.

 

On any given day, an intrepid hiker might stray off the path more traveled and find themselves on a certain mountain ridge deep in the George Washington National Forest near the small town of Lyndhurst, Augusta County, Virginia. That wanderer would possibly be struck by the quiet serene beauty of a lonely wood. But also, one might feel a sense of deep, isolated, melancholy remote separation.

Out of the corner of the eye, cracked and sunken concrete foundations suddenly seem to appear. But there are mature trees growing inside these old man-made formations. Then, a maze of complicated stone-lined pathways can occasionally be seen, as if in an attempt to affirm their continued existence under years and years of leaves, fallen limbs and bracken. A moss covered stairway leading to nowhere. Buried in the wilderness, what on earth could all this be?

This is exactly the impression made on me as I first arrived at the location of a forgotten structure deep in the forest. A location with great, but largely unknown and certainly unresolved for many, significance in Virginia history. This is Camp Lyndhurst. The home of nearly 300 German prisoners during the final years of World War II. But, that is only the last chapter of this incredible place, so lost and forgotten by many today.

Camp Lyndhurst was constructed deep in the throes of The Great Depression to house men who were part of Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s Civilian Conservation Corps. A program in FDR’s “New Deal” to employ thousands of jobless young men across America in construction and conservation projects, saving them from possible homelessness and starvation. The “CCC,” as it was familiarly called, constructed the Sherando Lake complex, did major construction on all areas of the Skyline Drive and Blue Ridge Parkway, and was involved with numerous other projects along the parkway’s route. They planted billions of trees in a reforestation project to inspire the sprit of conservation, all under the strict supervision of the U.S. Army.

These CCC Boys, although not prisoners, were under military restrictions and regulations. Consequently, they were the first men at Camp Lyndhurst to experience directly the overwhelming loneliness of this remote place. In fact, in one year alone—1940—37 were given dishonorable discharges for desertion. The isolated sequestration in this place created an uncannily depressing atmosphere.

Main Street, Camp Lyndhurst during the Civilian Public Service era.

Main Street, Camp Lyndhurst during the Civilian Public Service era.

Soon, very soon, their boredom was relieved by a sudden and dramatic contingency: the looming global conflict of the Second World War. The camp originally opened on May 15, 1933 and was operational as a CCC camp for the next 8 years. That era of Camp Lyndhurst came to an end on July 18, 1941. The camp was closed and vacant until May 1942. In short order, most CCC Boys enlisted or were drafted into the military, along with millions of other young Americans. But not all.

At the same time, thousands of young men, mostly affiliated with pacifist-based religious orders such as The Mennonite and Brethren Churches, requested and were officially designated conscientious objector status. Accordingly, many months after Camp Lyndhurst had been evacuated and shuttered by The Civilian Conservation Corps, frantic activity at the camp resumed.

Conscientious objectors were assigned to The Civilian Public Service, or CPS, and the camp took on its second incarnation as CPS Camp 29. Several hundred conscientious objectors continued the work on the parkway begun earlier by The CCC, along with essential work in agriculture on farms and orchards in The Shenandoah Valley. Eventually, work on The Blue Ridge Parkway in the Augusta County sector was completed, and CPS assignees were transferred to a separate CPS camp near Bedford, VA to continue work in the area of The Peaks of Otter.

And so, once again, the camp was closed and temporarily abandoned. Few could have imagined the next role the camp was to play. In 1944, many of the over three hundred thousand German prisoners of war would find the old CCC/CPS camps their home for the duration of the war and beyond. Manpower in the nation’s factories, fields and farms had been drastically depleted during the war effort. These German soldiers provided much needed labor on the home front, directed by the Department of Agriculture following strict observation of The Geneva Convention. Camp Lyndhurst was now a POW camp, and enemy soldiers were in our land, The Shenandoah Valley.

German POW.

German POW.

Many were given work assignments and were directly supervised by their local farmer and agricultural employers. Some of these farm families were of the Mennonite and Brethren church communities for generations, and many prisoners’ lives were transformed by these hosts‘ pacifist beliefs.

When the war ended, POWs, without fanfare and with little notice, were swiftly repatriated back to their homelands where they encountered complete destruction, death and starvation. However, the qualities of freedom, liberty and democracy they had experienced while working alongside the civilian population of America had made an indelible impression. Many determined to return, one day, to the land of the free.

This new feature documentary, from my local independent film group Alpha Vision Films, explores a little known and fascinating chapter in Virginia history. “In This Land: The Camp Lyndhurst Saga” features President of The Harrisonburg-Rockingham Historical Society, and author of The Longest Patrol, Gregory L. Owen. Mr. Owen’s book is about the life of one of the POWs interned at Camp Lyndhurst, Karl Baumann.

Karl Baumann was captured in France and eventually imprisoned at the camp. Following the war, he made his way back to the Shenandoah Valley to raise his family and live out his life. His story is prominently featured in the film. Karl Baumann passed away in 2009, so we have no direct quote from him. However, it’s recorded that he felt the attitude of the Mennonite and Brethren church families that employed him as a POW made a tremendous impact in his life. Although he was “the enemy” he was still given basic humanitarian treatment and respect.

Our documentary also includes President of The Waynesboro Heritage Foundation, Shirley Bridgeforth. Shirley was essential to the conception of film. The Foundation’s museum in downtown Waynesboro retains some fascinating relics from the camp. This is covered in her film interview. My study of these relics led me to the idea of making the film. At that point, Shirley introduced me to Gregory L. Owen. Greg had already done several years of research into the camp history, which was incredibly helpful in creating the narrative of the film. Shirley also did considerable research.

Karl Baumann, U-Boat Gunner, Age 19

Karl Baumann, U-Boat
Gunner, Age 19

The production began in January of 2014 and was completed by June this year. The location of the camp is a very compelling, but extremely dangerous place. One thing I hadn’t considered in sharing this story is that I’m now being swamped with requests for details on the location. Consequently, I’ve posted the following statement on all of our relevant social media: “Friends, thank you for your interest in the film. I have received numerous inquiries asking about the location of the camp. EXTREME caution should be used if attempting to visit the site. It’s a dangerous spot for many reasons:

1.) Sinkholes abound (we almost lost one of our associates up there filming one afternoon) Most of what I call “sinkholes” are the result of the foundations cracking up and settling, holes where fence/telephone/power line posts have been removed and eroded away, wells and cisterns, etc. All of these hazards are completely covered in years’ worth of leaves, limbs, bracken, etc. and consequently, totally invisible.

2.) It’s VERY remote. Please do NOT venture up there without advising the US Forest Service that you’ll be on the site.

3.) It’s a rattlesnake den! Additionally, we were given the stern warning from the US Forest Service to not remove any item large or small from the campsite. Please respect this completely reasonable directive. With a little research, the camp can be located. However, my one main concern in sharing this story is that someone will go up there and be injured… Consequently, I’m not generally publicizing the location. But it is indeed an amazing place…We learned all of this at the location the hard way!

One interesting production incident: over the weeks of location shooting, we had the son of former POW, the late Karl Baumann, request to join us at the site. Michael Baumann, who is an educator in Kenova WV, had not been back to the camp location since his first visit, age 6, when he was accompanied by his father. Michael Baumann is now 52. I had not, at that time, had the opportunity to secure rights, releases, and permissions to include him in the film. This visit had come up suddenly and unexpectedly.

Author Gregory L. Owen inspects grounds of Camp Lyndhurst with Shirley Bridgeforth.

Author Gregory L. Owen inspects grounds of Camp Lyndhurst with Shirley Bridgeforth.

So I firmly instructed my director of photography, Mark Miller, not to film him or have him on camera on this particular day’s shooting. While we were split up with different crews over several different spots at the site, Michael found himself alone with Mark at a very significant landmark, which we had discovered and excavated at the camp, the “stone pedestal” bulletin board. Effectively, the center of the camp.

At this point, Michael insisted that the camera start rolling. He had something to say, and over Mark’s objection, his sequence was filmed. It was very fortunate, for Michael did not return to the campsite at any other time during the filming. Michael’s statement in the film is, without doubt, one of the emotional highlights of the entire production. In the end we received the full co-operation of the Baumann family.

We were able to track down some fascinating people here in Virginia, some of whom had been at the camp in one of its many facets. Mr. David Flora of Bridgewater VA is a good case in point. Mr. Flora, 92 years old in 2014, was the son of a Brethren Church minister and lifelong member of the Brethren Church community. He requested, and was officially granted, conscientious objector status by Selective Service during World War II.

In 1943, at age 21, he reported to CPS Camp 23, Camp Lyndhurst, to begin his compulsory service. He describes the concept of conscientious objection in the film thus: ‘It means not killing. Seeking the good in a person rather than the evil. You wouldn’t go out and shoot a person who was your friend, so you don’t go shoot a person who’s not your friend!’ Mr. Flora’s sequence in the film is another emotionally powerful moment.

Barracks interior. CPS era. 1943. 21 year old David Flora is seated far right.

Barracks interior. CPS era. 1943. 21 year old David Flora is seated far right.

Needless to say, these first hand witnesses are fewer and fewer with the passing years. Their recollections proved to be most interesting.

The film raises many important issues, still completely valid today. The question of conscience versus duty… The idea of how humans relate to each other and how one or two inciting incidents in a person’s life can send them off on a path of which they could never have dreamed… Our film will appeal to those interested in both the history of Virginia and/or of World War II. Also, since local Brethren and Mennonites played important roles as both conscientious objectors and as consumers of POW labor, the story of Camp Lyndhurst would be of interest to those immersed in church history.

You can view “In This Land: The Camp Lyndhurst Saga / German Prisoners of War in The Old Dominion” free of charge by visiting the Alpha Vision Films website: www.alphavisionfilms.net or www.alphavisionfilms.com. (All of our 19 previous productions, many also with local interest, can be seen at the site free of charge as well.) You won’t want to miss this incredible story that retraces, and at long last reveals, a compelling true-life drama in The Shenandoah Valley. We hope you will find this story as exciting and profound as we did in bringing it to you.

Alpha Vision Films’ production team also includes Associate producer Theresa Reynolds Curry and Mark Miller, Director of photography. Who is funding Alpha Vision Films? In short, I am. My ‘real job’ has been professional singer and entertainer in Virginia for the last 38 years. But I have also been a lifelong film fan, studied the process, and long intended to one day undertake film-making myself. This is not now, and has never been, a ‘commercial’ venture for me. I’ve spent a small fortune in all this (and I’m not wealthy by any means) and haven’t yet made a dime. Purely done for the intrinsic joy of being a part of such a creative form of expression and working within a new medium that I love.

Just as I do, everyone donates their time and talent while I pick up all expenses. Very gratifying undertaking, and our work has dramatically improved and met with enthusiastic acceptance over the last 5 years. We’re incredibly grateful.

One final thought on this particular subject—I know from personal experience, having spent my entire adult life in the entertainment industry, that this approach—concentrating solely on the artistic merits and quality of one’s work, NOT the money—is EXACTLY how amazing and unexpected opportunities often find a person. So… this is how I’m betting!

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Book Excerpt: ‘Black Mountain College’

Posted by | November 4, 2014

anne chesky_smithHeather SouthPlease welcome guest authors Anne E. Chesky Smith and Heather South. The two have just released the new book Black Mountain College (Arcadia Publishing). Chesky Smith grew up in the Swannanoa Valley of North Carolina and is a graduate of Appalachian State University’s Masters of Appalachian Studies program in Boone, NC. Smith served as the Executive Director of the Swannanoa Valley Museum for the past four years and is now pursuing her PhD in Anthropology at the University of Georgia in Athens. Heather South fell in love with archives work during an internship at Winthrop University, Rock Hill, SC, and has been working with historical documents ever since. Heather has a BA and MA in history from Winthrop University and is a member of the Academy of Certified Archivists. South is now the head archivist for the Western Regional Archives, a branch of the State Archives of North Carolina, located in Asheville, NC, which opened in August 2012. Black Mountain College boasts 200 vintage images, many of which have never been published, and chronicles the school’s unique history. We’re pleased to present the following excerpt:

 

In the spring of 1933, John Andrew Rice, a classics professor at Rollins College in Winter Park, Florida, faced an investigating team to answer to charges that ranged from wearing a jockstrap on the beach to being “disruptive of peace and harmony.”

Black Mountain cover final

Denying the former charge, but unable to fully dispute the latter because of his unconventional teaching methods and sometimes abrasive personality, Rice was fired. Several other faculty, including physics instructor Theodore Dreier, chemistry professor Frederick Georgia, and history professor Robert Lounsbury, rallied around Rice and the issues his firing brought up at the school. A few were also fired, and others resigned in protest.

That summer, many of Rice’s former students and colleagues encouraged him to start a new experimental school where they could practice many of the educational theories of which Rice had often spoken. When he finally agreed, space for the college and money to operate it had to be found quickly. Former Rollins drama professor and native North Carolinian Bob Wunsch suggested Blue Ridge Assembly, located in Black Mountain, North Carolina.

The Christian conference center, in use only during the summer, proved to be an excellent location for the school. The large, three-story, white-columned main building, Robert E. Lee Hall, boasted a large lobby, wide porch, two wings, and rooms suitable for dorms. There was also a separate dining room directly behind Lee Hall. All of this would well serve the college’s idea of a communal living environmental. And, best of all, it was available for just $4,500 a year—a modest sum for a rental, but still an obstacle for Rice and his supporters to raise before the start of the term.

Without a clear operational plan, Rice had trouble finding funding from traditional sources, but at the last minute, he lucked into a $10,000 gift from the wealthy family of another former Rollins faculty, “Mac” Forbes, who would continue to generously support the college for many years. Now, with enough money in the bank, Rice signed the lease for Blue Ridge Assembly on August 24, 1933, and Black Mountain College became a reality.

Campus members soak up the sun while reading in the rocking chairs off the dining hall after a meal, Blue Ridge campus.

Campus members soak up the sun while reading in the rocking chairs off the dining hall after a meal, Blue Ridge campus.

The first board of fellows consisted of Rice, Georgia, Lounsbury, Dreier, Dreier’s younger brother John, and J.E. Spurr. When Lounsbury died suddenly of a stroke just after the start of the first term, and with John Dreier and Spurr mostly absent from the campus, the college was put firmly in the hands of three men—John Andrew Rice, Theodore Dreier, and Frederick Georgia. They appointed themselves to faculty positions, put together bylaws of the college, and elected Georgia as the college’s first rector. After the first year, however, the title would be given to Rice.

But by no means was work in class and on campus the only, or even the main, emphasis of the college. Allowing time for leisure and personal exploration was another component of educating the whole student. The grounds and forests surrounding Blue Ridge Assembly allowed for an abundance of outdoor activities. Students and faculty gathered for dancing after dinner during the week and attended concerts and plays put on by the community on weekends.

The most innovative—and best-remembered—part of Black Mountain’s education experiment, though, was the school’s emphasis on putting art at the center of the curriculum. Students were encouraged to take courses in theater, music, drawing, painting, and poetry. But in order for the arts to be a central focus, an art teacher had to be found. After turning down several recommendations, Rice was told about a German couple that was trying to come to the United States after the Bauhaus had closed its doors.

He hired Josef Albers, a painter, and his wife, Anni, a weaver, on the spot, sight unseen. The Albers arrived at Black Mountain just before Thanksgiving 1933 and would, for the next decade and a half, be a driving force behind the arts at the college. Over the years, more refugee artists would find haven at Black Mountain, greatly shaping the school.

Two unidentified students work in the college’s chemistry lab on the Blue Ridge Assembly campus.

Two unidentified students work in the college’s chemistry lab on the Blue Ridge Assembly campus.

The college would gain notoriety during the 1930s, appearing in newspaper articles and attracting visitors such as John Dewey, Thornton Wilder, Henry Miller, and Aldous Huxley, who were interested in the Black Mountain experiment. But when Louis Adamic, a Yugoslavian writer, came to Black Mountain in 1936 and wrote a long magazine article that would appear in Harper’s and Reader’s Digest, a schism in the community began to develop.

Though the article brought the college much-needed publicity, it presented John Andrew Rice as the hero and leader of the school, a view to which many objected loudly and publicly. The fight between Rice and his detractors continued for over a year, and many faculty who were against him—including Frederick Georgia—were forced out. In 1938, however, it was discovered that Rice was having an affair with a student, and that became the precipitating factor that finally forced him from Black Mountain in 1940. His exit, along with a change of campus, would successfully bring about the end the first era of Black Mountain College’s history.

While Blue Ridge Assembly served the college well during its first years, moving in and out every summer to make room for the Christian conference goers became problematic. Plus, renting a facility limited how much the college could grow and change.

Students rest on a farm truck with John Andrew Rice (seated against the trunk cab).  The farm, a student generated idea, was started to subsidize some of the cost of feeding the students and staff.

Students rest on a farm truck with John Andrew Rice (seated against the truck cab). The farm, a student generated idea, was started to subsidize some of the cost of feeding the students and staff.

So in 1937, the college purchased a 667-acre property across the valley at Lake Eden. Architecture professor A. Lawrence Kocher was asked to design a single facility that would house classrooms, space for a weaving room, storage, student studies, and faculty apartments.

The design was approved, and beginning in the fall of 1940, in an effort to save money, classes were only held in the morning so that students and faculty could go to Lake Eden and work with a few professionals on winterizing the existing buildings and constructing the new Studies Building. In May 1941, with the end of their lease at Blue Ridge Assembly, the college packed up all their equipment and trucked it to the Lake Eden property.

Like the 1930s, the 1940s brought new faculty, new ideas, and new schisms within the college.

The same summer (1944) in which the college invited Alma Stone to be the first black member of the community also saw the introduction of two special summer sessions—one in art and one in music—that, over the years, would bring many notable artists, including Willem de Kooning, John Cage, Merce Cunningham, Beaumont and Nancy Newhall, and Buckminster Fuller, to teach at Black Mountain for a few weeks. It was during one of these summer sessions that Fuller would successfully erect his first geodesic dome.

Black Mountain’s third, and final, era saw it become a dramatically different place it had been for the first 16 years. Enrollment dropped even further in the 1950s, falling to 35 students by1953, then to 15, then to 9, which kept funding a continuing issue.

Sue Spayth (Riley) climbing out onto the roof of Lee Hall for Macbeth rehearsal. She played Lady Macbeth in the campus production.

Sue Spayth (Riley) climbing out onto the roof of Lee Hall for Macbeth rehearsal. She played Lady Macbeth in the campus production.

Selling a large tract of land across the road from the college shored up some of the college’s finances, but few at the school in the 1950s were interested in (or nearly as good as Ted Dreier had been) at fundraising and administration. Interest in the work program was minimal. The farm was neglected, and when the cows began to die from lack of care, they were sold off.

The few attempts on behalf of some faculty members to add a more traditional structure to the college failed in favor of continuing the college’s original ideals of creativity, freedom, and artistic expression, and those faculty, frustrated with the direction in which the college was headed, left the school. Though the last of the college’s summer sessions were held in 1953, Olson attempted to reorganize the structure of the school away from a traditional class schedule to a series of institutes in art, science, and social science held for intense periods throughout the semester but in the end, it was not enough.

Though it only lasted 24 years, Black Mountain College continues to inspire thought on community living, experimental education, and the arts. Several books have already been compiled that chronicle the history of the place, the art that came out of it, and many of the personal stories from the college. The purpose of this publication is twofold—to showcase a small percentage of the image collection at the NCDCR and to introduce Black Mountain College to those who never knew this special place existed.

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New Documentary Film: The Jane Edna Harris Hunter Story

Posted by | November 3, 2014

dr rhondda thomasPlease welcome guest author Dr. Rhondda Robinson Thomas. Dr. Thomas is an Associate Professor of English at Clemson University in Clemson, SC, where she teaches early African American and American literature. She is also co-chair of Race and the University: A Campus Conversation, an initiative sponsored by Clemson’s College of Architecture, Arts, and Humanities for the 2014-15 academic year. She is currently conducting archival research for a multifaceted project—a mobile app, website, and book—that will illuminate the life stories and contributions of African Americans to Clemson University, including enslaved laborers and sharecroppers who worked on John C. Calhoun and Thomas Green Clemson’s Fort Hill Plantation and convict laborers who helped to build Clemson Agriculture College in the late 1800s and early 1900s. She has published Claiming Exodus: A Cultural History of Afro Atlantic Identity, 1774-1903 and co-edited The South Carolina Roots of African American Thought, A Reader.

 

‘The Jane Edna Harris Hunter Story’ celebrates the life, work, and legacy of South Carolina native Jane Edna Harris Hunter, founder of the Phillis Wheatley Association (PWA) in Cleveland, OH. Starting with just a nickel and a prayer, Hunter established the PWA to provide affordable housing, job training and placement, and wholesome recreation to thousands of African American women and girls who relocated to Cleveland from the South during the Great Migration of the early twentieth century.

Hunter was born on December 13, 1882, to Harriet Milliner and Edward Harris, former slaves who worked as wage earners on Woodburn Farm, a former plantation on the outskirts of Pendleton, SC. Her father moved their family into town so that his children could receive an education at the school affiliated with the Silver Spring Baptist Church.

Jane Edna Hunter (1882-1971) from her early years just as she established the Phillis Wheatley Association.

Jane Edna Hunter (1882-1971) from her early years just as she
established the Phillis Wheatley Association.

After her father died following a brief illness, 10-year-old Jane was forced to work, performing jobs such as domestic work, which ended soon due to maltreatment by her employers; picking cotton, which she confessed to finding very difficult to accomplish; and babysitting, which didn’t last long because of an accusation of insolence by the baby’s mother. Then in her earliteen years, Jane persuaded her mother to allow her to attend Ferguson and Williams College, a boarding high school started by African American Presbyterian missionaries in Abbeville, SC.

After completing the 4-year program, 18-year-old Jane found a job near the school, but her mother forced her to return home and enter into an arranged marriage with Edward Hunter, who was 40 years older. Within 18 months, Jane made the unconventional choice of permanently separating from her husband and moved to Charleston, SC, where she lived for the next five years. There she cared for the children of Attorney Benjamin Rutledge, Jr. before enrolling in the Training School for Nurses at the Cannon Street Hospital founded by African American physician Alonzo C. McClennan.

Jane worked with well-established white and black doctors in the lowcountry before enrolling in the nursing training school affiliated with Dixie Hospital at Hampton College in Hampton, VA. After completing one year of the two-year program, Jane headed to Richmond where friends convinced her to relocate with them to Cleveland.

In 1905, Jane’s transition to city life was filled with challenges. White northern doctors refused to hire a southern black nurse. When she attempted to find safe, affordable housing, she ended up living in a brothel. When she sought entertainment, she mistakenly attended a party where the local hustler Albert “Starlight” Boyd was recruiting female newcomers for his prostitution ring.

After finally finding a steady nursing job and good housing with the assistance of new friends from her church, Jane plunged into suicidal depression due to the sudden death of her mother in 1910. She was able to push past her grief by redirecting her sorrow into helping young women and girls who were being turned away from Cleveland’s white YWCA due to its segregationist policies to avoid the pitfalls of urban life.

On set with the crew of 'The Jane Edna Harris Hunter Story.'

On set with the crew of ‘The Jane Edna Harris Hunter Story.’

 

‘The Jane Edna Harris Hunter Story’ will trace Jane Hunter’s rise from a poverty-stricken childhood in the late 1800s to an influential, nationally renowned social activist in the early- to mid-1900s. The production team reflects a towns-and-gowns approach, linking a Clemson University professor and her students with a local company, Dead Horse Productions, and a Jane Edna Hunter advocate, Carol Burdett, the former mayor of Pendleton and the president and chief professional officer for the United Way of Anderson, SC.

Hunter came to my attention during the summer of 2007 as I prepared for my first semester of classes by visiting historical societies located around the university in an effort to find a local author to feature in my African American literature course that fall. After several visits to the Pendleton Historic Foundation, I asked a staff member, whom I later learned was Jo McConnell, if she could recommend a book. “Have you heard of A Nickel and a Prayer?” she asked as I left their office on my final visit to the site. I had not but promised her that I would find the book.

There was one fragile copy of the book in Clemson’s Special Collections, which librarians used to make copies for my students. I purchased a signed copy of the book on Amazon.com for $50. As my students and I finished discussing the book, I asked them to respond to the final chapter, “Fireside Musings.” They looked puzzled. I gave them hints to jog their memories. They looked even more puzzled. So I opened my book and pointed to the chapter title. “We don’t have that chapter, Dr. Thomas,” one of my students replied.

That discovery led to the establishment of The Jane Edna Hunter Project. Two teams of undergraduate researchers in Clemson University’s Creative Inquiry Program assisted with the research for the scholarly edition, including conducting archival work in the Western Reserve Historical Society Library and the PWA in Cleveland, where Hunter’s papers are housed, and helping to write a book proposal that led to a contract in the Regenerations series sponsored by the West Virginia University Press. The Regenerations series features significant out of print and neglected texts by African American writers.

More recent trailer for documentary by Clemson Student Creative Inquiry Team.


 

We eventually discovered that Hunter had published two editions of her autobiography in 1940 and 1941 with the editorial assistance of John Bennett, a writer and cultural critic from Charleston whom she had met at Woodburn. Our meticulous search for the identities of numerous individuals Hunter identifies as friends and supporters of the PWA yielded a list of many of the most influential black and white businessmen, politicians, civic women, and clergy in the city of Cleveland.

The Dead Horse Productions team and Burdett soon learned of my research and we began to work together, with the assistance of a third Clemson Student Creative Inquiry Team, to produce a documentary about Hunter’s life and work. As we prepared for the production process, we sought ways to reintroduce Hunter to the South Carolina Upstate region. In 2012, our application for her induction into the Anderson County Hall of Fame was accepted. We have also made presentations in a variety of venues, including the Martin Luther King Jr. Prayer Breakfast sponsored by the mayor of Anderson, the United Way’s Black History Month Program, and for a meeting of the Daughters of the American Revolution.

Some have been surprised to learn of the extent of Hunter’s influence and success. For example, she received financial assistance from nationally renowned Cleveland businessmen and philanthropists John D. Rockefeller—a $100,000 donation for her $600,000 capital campaign for a new PWA building and summer camp; as well as from Henry Sherwin, president of the Sherwin-Williams Paint Company—the first year’s rent for her first PWA facility. Her board of directors included Constance Mather Bishop, a descendant of the influential colonial minister Cotton Mather, as well as Charles W. Chesnutt, a prominent African American author and civil rights activist.

Official trailer for documentary by Dead Horse Productions.


 

By 1927 when Hunter opened the new 8-story PWA building, which included an integrated cafeteria, a beauty shop, and a gymnasium, she had made enormous strides in her professional life. She had earned a law degree and passed the Ohio bar exam. She had become active in the black women’s club movement, including affiliations with Mary McLeod Bethune, African American educator and founder of Bethune College, later known as Bethune-Cookman College, and Nannie Burroughs, African American educator and founder of the National Training School for Women and Girls in Washington, D.C.

She had joined the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and earned a leadership role in the Republican Party at the local and national levels. And she had transformed the PWA into a community center that provided a variety of programming to the African American community, such as music lessons, sports programs, cultural events, in addition to special services designed for African American female migrants.

The documentary will also explore aspects of Hunter’s life beyond 1941 when she published the second edition of her autobiography. After being forced to retire from the PWA in 1948, she increased her participation in the lecture circuit, speaking to diverse audiences around the country regarding democracy, interracial cooperation, and women’s rights. She also wrote columns for local Cleveland newspapers and national African American newspapers.

Additionally, Hunter began investing in the stock market, eventually using her nest egg to establish the National Phillis Wheatley Foundation to provide college scholarships for women from Ohio and South Carolina. Since the early 1970s, the foundation has awarded scholarships to women enrolled in colleges throughout the United States and Europe.

Ohio has inducted Jane Edna Hunter into its Hall of Fame. The City of Cleveland has named its social services building in her honor. Influential scholars such as Hazel Carby and Darlene Clark Hine have written extensively about the complexities of Hunter’s work for African American women during the Jim Crow era.

Now a team from Pendleton and Clemson is seeking to bring this remarkable women’s story to life in a documentary that will help restore Jane Edna Harris Hunter to her rightful place as one of the most influential American social activists of the early twentieth century. You can be a part of the effort! Please consider making a donation at http://www.razoo.com/story/Jane-Documentary-Film-On-Jane-Edna-Hunter. Thank you for your support.

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Listen Here: Appalachian History Weekly podcast posts today

Posted by | October 31, 2014

We usually post a new episode of Appalachian History weekly podcast every Sunday. But today’s Halloween, and we’ve got some stories that’ll have you checking under the bed and in the closet before your day is over! We’re on the Stitcher network, available on mobile phones, in-car dashboards and tablets worldwide. Just click below to start listening:

Today’s show will consist entirely of spooky tales from the collection of the Frank & Jane Gabor West Virginia Folklife Center in Fairmont, WV.

Between the 1950s to the early 1970s, WV folklorist Ruth Ann Musick collected folktales at church socials, fairs, festivals, and other community functions.

Most of the tales collected were labeled as legends, for they contained extraordinary, remarkable, even bizarre supernatural and preternatural events and encounters that had happened to ordinary people. Historically, isolated hills and little-traveled roads were scenes of potential violence. Later, the Industrial Revolution claimed lives in railroad, bridge, and tunnel accidents. Coal mining accidents in particular have produced numerous tales of ghostly and ghastly encounters.

In addition to its abundance of tragic circumstances, Appalachia’s climate and topography offer ideal settings for strange happenings. Its rolling hills cast long shadows into deep hollows while patchy valley fog oozes up from cooling waters to hang from green ridges. Suddenly, a breath of wind cuts the fog into will-o’-the-wisps that spin off into the pale moonlight and float over a lonely road – or in the deepest tunnel of a coal mine – or beside an empty railroad track – waiting – waiting – for someone. Lifted beyond or below the natural, the ghostly and ghastly tales are born.

halloween listenersIn storytelling, three major ghosts abound. The first is the helpful spirit. Miracles and tales of help from fairies and other wee folk have been traditionally told in the hills. The most prevalent helper, however, is the benevolent ghost that returns to save a loved one in distress, such as a sick mother or trapped miner.

The second most recorded ghost is the “unrested” spirit or poltergeist, usually the spirit of a person who has died suddenly or tragically. The poltergeist drifts upon the earth, attaching itself to a familiar person or place. Thus, the haunted house or haunted person story is created. The third type of supernatural encounter, the revengeful ghost, is the least common tale to be found in the hills. Sometimes a ghost returns to see that justice is done or that the truth be known. In contrast, the preternatural tales go below the natural to present ghastly encounters of evil doings, such as vampires, werewolves, trolls, giants, dragons, devils, and especially witches.

The 6 folktales presented here were collected through the field study component of Fairmont State University’s Folk Literature classes and housed in the un-published folklore estate of Ruth Ann Musick. The first 5 tales were gathered by Dr. Musick with her students between the 1950s and early 1970s. The final tale was collected by Judy Byers and her students during 2010 Spring Semester, following in the same tradition.

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