We called ourselves barn massagers, walldogs or barn lizards

Posted by Dave Tabler | September 30, 2016

You may not be familiar with the Bloch Brothers of Wheeling, WV, but it’s a fairly sure bet that at some point in your life you’ve encountered a roadside barn painted with the large sign “Chew Mail Pouch Tobacco  – Treat Yourself to the Best.”

Aaron and Samuel Bloch’s barn-painting advertising, begun in the 1890s, helped to make their “West Virginia coleslaw” one of America’s most recognized brands of the twentieth century.

Maurice Zimmerman (1906-1993), of Washington Courthouse, OH, began a lifelong career as a Mail Pouch sign painter in 1925.

When “Zim” graduated from high school in 1924, his brother Walter, an executive with the YMCA in Youngstown, urged him to come to Youngstown to find a job. Zim went to night school at the YMCA and worked during the day as an apprentice in a sign studio.

Mail Pouch Tobacco sign painters 1925

Six man Mail Pouch paint crew (l to r): Unknown, Bill Hart, Bill Bucks, Kenneth Walkerman, Carl Wunelle, and Maurice Zimmerman. Syracuse, NY, 1925.

In August of 1925, the younger Zimmerman traveled to Syracuse, NY, where he met Harry Herig, a sub-contractor hired by the Bloch Brothers Tobacco Company to paint barns.  Herig assembled a six man crew, two painters manning each Model T truck.

From Syracuse they traveled west on main highways, the US and state highways, looking for barns to paint. The crews were assigned a certain territory and they would go to a town, maybe stay for as long as two weeks, and work that area. They would select their own locations or barns.

When Zim first started working for Harry Herig, the first of three contractors for whom he would paint, the men did their own leasing.

“We’d use our judgment as to how much we’d pay for the lease,” Zim recalls.

“We would pay anywhere from $2 to $10 and as little as $1, and some of the farmers thought they were getting rich quick in those days. Two men would do a sign in half a day, but you had to learn to work into it and develop a speed which would make money for your contractor.

Mail Pouch Tobacco sign being painted, Cambridge Ohio

Barn painting in process outside Cambridge, Ohio; Zimmerman was videotaped repainting the same barn many years later for America’s 1976 centennial celebration.

“The equipment, including the truck, was provided by the tobacco contractor, but the expenses were our own. We put a lot of miles on that old Ford. I still wonder how the truck stayed in working condition. Often the Model T would just barely make a hill.

“I especially remember the St. Clairsville hill when it was snowy and icy. I don’t know which was worse, going up or coming down. But we always made it,” Zim remembers.

The paint crew used Dutch Boy white lead, which came in 100 pound kegs.

“We opened untold hundreds of those kegs – those steel kegs of white lead.  We stored our mixed paint in 5 and 10 gallon milk cans. The paint was a heavy paste, and we mixed it with linseed oil to a thick consistency. Then we thinned it with gasoline. That was our paint thinner – gasoline.

“For the black paint, dry lampblack would be mixed with the Linseed oil. We put it on just as heavy as it would go on. You couldn’t make your paint thin because some of those barns would soak it in. It was like painting on a blotter sometimes, and they were very rough,” Zim said.

The whole side of the barn was not painted, he explained, and the painter used a process of spotting on the letters. “That’s where you work the letters into the space where the lettering goes. Then take a brush and make the shape of the letter. Then you spot on that color, white or yellow.”

Before starting a job, Zim said, “We’d get back and visualize the barn and picture that sign in your mind. You’d pick out a board or window, or something to use as a guideline, and spot on the letters, like CHEW, and always begin at the top. It’s in rough form when you get it done.” He never used a stencil to letter in a barn.

The words Chew and Treat Yourself To The Best were almost always in white, and Mail Pouch Tobacco in yellow. “Sometimes a farmer insisted on a red sign. That was a bother, and more expensive. We had to shade the letters in black so they would stand out. Occasionally I did an oval background for the sign.”

“It was the only company that I knew of that did that kind of barn advertising,” Zim recalled. “We called ourselves barn massagers, walldogs or barn lizards. We called our big six-inch brushes mops and our overalls skins. Our skins would get stiff and crusted like suits of armor. When they got so bad we could hardly get into them, we’d throw them away buy new ones.”

“There weren’t many environmentalists around in those days to complain about road signs. Oh, once in a while we’d get some static – usually from women – not about the sign itself, but about chewing tobacco. Sometimes we’d find a lady barn owner, who liked to chew tobacco.

“Pay? When we started it was $50 a week, and we had to pay all our own expenses out of that. About 23 years ago [ed.-1961] I was getting $115 a week, and still had to subtract meals and lodging.”

Mail Pouch Tobacco barn sign painted by Maurice Zimmerman

Zimmerman family barn on Creston Road in Cambridge, OH. Painted by Maurice Zimmeran, his son, grandson, and great grandson. (Most recently repainted in spring 2003.)

There were the times too, when Zim and his crew were left stranded with not much money left while they waited for a Western Union money order from the tobacco company to catch up with them.

“We worked the year around, with just a week off at Christmas, and it was real barnstorming!” Zim recalls.

In more than 35 years, Maurice and his crew painted 12,000 barns. Neither rain nor snow nor ill-tempered barnyard beasts could stay them from the swift completion of their appointed rounds. Their signs became one of the hallmarks of rural America.

–adapted from “The Barns Remain, But the Artists Are Forgotten!” by Gerald P. Carl, 1984, online at www.ohiobarns.com/mpbarns/hist/mz/mz.html

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Judaculla Rock

Posted by Dave Tabler | September 29, 2016

No other rocks in the area have similar markings, although there are many other boulders in the vicinity. Some of the pictographs on it appear to be animals and animal tracks, while others appear to be human figures, suns, and geometric figures.

Judaculla—or Jutaculla— Rock is one of the greatest archaeological mysteries in the United States. The largest petroglyph in North Carolina, and one of the largest in the Southeast, is named for a Cherokee legend about its formation. Judaculla Rock sits in the Caney Fork Creek valley in Jackson County, outside of Cullowhee. The details of the petroglyph’s formation, as well as its origin and purpose, are unknown to scientists.

Judaculla Rock petroglyphsArtist rendition of Judaculla Rock engravings.

The soapstone slab is about sixteen feet long by eleven feet wide. The designs on it appear to have been produced in a variety of manners, including incising, pecking, and smoothing. These methods are evident upon close examination, but are becoming more difficult to identify with the continued erosion of the rock.

In the late 19th century, Cherokee groups were known to hold ceremonial assemblies around the rock. Additional outcrops of soapstone, used by Cherokees then to sculpt pipes, beads, bowls, and bannerstones, are located near the Judaculla Rock. Archaeologists think the Cherokees camped at, or near, the rock when they came to quarry soapstone. Furthermore, due to recent excavations of the areas surrounding Judaculla, scientists now postulate that the rock was part of a larger grouping of soapstone creations.

James Mooney, a researcher at the Smithsonian Institution, recorded the Cherokee legend of Judaculla Rock in the 1880s. According to Mooney’s story, a being named Judaculla (called by the Cherokee Tsul-ka-lu or Tsu’ Kalu— the Great Slant-eyed Giant) was the greatest of all the Cherokee mythical characters, a giant hunter who lived on the southwestern slope of Richland Balsam Mountain at the head of the Tuckaseegee River in Jackson County.

Judaculla was very powerful and could control the wind, rain, thunder, and lightning. He was known to drink whole streams down in a single gulp and stomp from mountain to mountain as one might over ant hills. (In fact, according to Sequoyah’s Cherokee translation of the Bible, the word ‘Goliath’ was renamed Judaculla.)

One legend claims that the markings are hunting laws that Judaculla ordered. Another has it that Judaculla jumped from his mountaintop farm and landed partially on the rock, producing scratches, while running a band of American Indians off his land. The seven-toed foot at the lower right hand side of the boulder is said to depict Judaculla’s footprint.

The rock was once thought to depict a map of the 1755 Cherokee victory over the Creeks at the battle of Taliwa in what is now Georgia, or perhaps a victory over another enemy, the Catawba.

Archeologists now know that the Judaculla Rock predates the Cherokee habitation of western North Carolina, but its exact time of origin is unknown. It is currently dated from the late Archaic Period, between 3000 and 1000 BCE, when evidence first appears of Native American societies forming mound societies.

The North Carolina Rock Art Survey has organized a Judaculla Advisory Committee composed of site owner Jackson County NC, members of the Eastern Band of the Cherokee Tribal Historic Preservation Office and Tribal Elders, the Office of State Archaeology, professors from nearby Western Carolina University, and members of the surrounding community. The Advisory Committee agreed to pursue a formal recording of the petroglyphs along with a condition assessment and conservation plan. You can read about their progress so far in the Winter 2008 issue of the North Carolina Archaeological Society newsletter.

sources: www.cs.unca.edu/nfsnc/rock_art


Footsteps of the Cherokees, by Vicki Rozema, John F. Blair, Publisher, 2007

9 Responses

  • Sara Morgan says:

    I just recently found out that there is one more rock on Indian mound road near Judaculla on a private residence that also has these same markings !

  • Chris Brackin says:

    SARA, I am very interested in knowing where this other rock is. Is there a photo, or etching of it? I’d like to compair the two for my research. Thanks for the info.

  • The traditon of Judaculla Rock can also be found in various other places in Appalachia. Cherokee meetings were sometimes found at sacred rock formations similar to Raven Rocks, a name found at various Southern Appalachian locations, and Sizemore Rock. These are in southeast Kentucky. The Sizemore Band (Whitetop)is related to Cherokee Chief Arun Redbird (Aaron Bock or Aaron Sizemore) who lived and worked in areas connected to Cherokee Chiefs Butterfly and Dragging Canoe in southeast Kentucky and other Appalachian Cherokee areas. cherokeeempire.bravehost.com

  • […] Appalachian History: Stories, quotes, and anecdotes […]

  • Marshall Ramsey II says:

    This appears to be a story of an ancient sea voyage and the stars that they sailed under. At the bottom of the stone just right of center, there are four dots that appear to be stars in the form of the constellation Cassiopeia. Near the northeastern edge of the rock there are three stars in the form of an upside-down triangle with a fourth star a short distance from the bottom star in the triangle.

    To the right of Cassiopeia is what appears to be a Viking long boat with unfurled main sail. The boat appears to be broken past the mast to the rear of the boat.

    The symbol right beside (left) the boat is an octopus. You can tell this by the bulbous head and the eight legs, or tentacles, attached to it. It appears, in part, to be the story of how Vikings came to this country, yet had their ship destroyed by a giant octopus.

  • Darrell Pierce says:

    Nephilim. Product of the watchers and human women. There are newspaper stories all over the world about discoveries of giant skeletons 7-15 feet and some even taller. The articles appeared in local newspapers here in the US in the 1800s and early 1900s until the evolutionists who came into control of our scientific research facilities began a concerted effort to confiscate, eradicate and obfuscate anything of this nature due to its detrimental effects on their theory.

  • gary says:

    I’ve also heard of old carvings found in trees near what is now Robbinsville and an area just south of Topton. Does anyone have any more knowledge of these tree carvings?

  • Linda says:

    Why are they not protecting the Judaculla from the elements so it can continue to be studied? There is a structure over one like this in Western Tennesse.

  • Jamie says:

    Hi, I have been looking for any information on a rock that’s about 24’x30′ flat top oval shape with carved writings on it that consist of x,l,-,_x sort of like Hebrew writings or Aztec symbols. The symbols on it were obviously carved very long ago, because you can see the rounding of the edges of everything from years of weather. I seen this rock in the 80’s at an very old pike county woman’s home. She said her son found it in the mountains while hunting. I tried to buy it but she wouldn’t sell. She kept it on her night stand in her bedroom. If anyone knows anything about this rock, pleas email me. I would love to know what happened to it or what anyone has found out about it. You can contact me at gegejustice@gmail.

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Bloody Fellow – Cherokee diplomacy in a time of war (part 2 of 2)

Posted by Dave Tabler | September 28, 2016

At the beginning of September 1792, John Watts gathered hundreds of Cherokee, Creek, Chickamauga, and Shawnee at Willstown to orchestrate a sweeping campaign to attack the Holston region. It would feature a combined army in four bands of two hundred each.

Watts had only been in charge of the Chickamauga (Lower Cherokee) since March. The attack he was planning — coordinated against many different settlements, uniting disparate Indian nations in battle, armed with Spanish weapons — was to be Watts’ triumphant introduction as war chief of the Lower Cherokees.

"The Signing of the Treaty of the Holston" sculpture on the Knoxville, Tennessee waterfront. via Wikipedia

“The Signing of the Treaty of the Holston” sculpture on the Knoxville, Tennessee waterfront. via Wikipedia

Meanwhile Blount, as Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Southern Department, kept tabs on the Willstown proceedings via two spies among the Cherokee. Richard Finnelson and Joseph De Raque, both of whom were present at Willstown, furnished him with transcriptions of the proceedings. (Finnelson and De Raque were double agents: they were also delivering messages between the Spaniards in Pensacola, FL and the Indians assembled at Willstown.)

Finnelson says in letters that when he and De Raque arrived at Willstown, Bloody Fellow was arguing against going to war, saying that “it was a bad step they were taking.”

For one thing, the Indian warrior coalition was tenuous: the Creeks and the Cherokees had engaged in a vicious, bloody war against each other in the 1750s. And while they understood they had to work together to keep the U.S. on the eastern side of the mountains — and Spain near the Mississippi — this was not an easy, natural alliance.

Bloody Fellow spoke to the assemblage of his trip to Philadelphia: “Look here at these things I fetched for myself. Others went with me. If I had gone by myself, perhaps you might have thought that I made them myself. You had better take my talk, and stay at home, and mind your women and children.” He was interrupted in his comments with much grumbling and disagreement. He struggled to maintain his position, pointing out that the Americans were too powerful. “Look at that flag! Don’t you see the stars on it? They are not towns. They are nations. There are thirteen of them. These are people who are very strong, and are the same as one man!”

Watts was not dissuaded from his course: Said Finnelson in a letter to Blount: “John Watts had been to Pensacola; he brought home seven horse loads of ammunition, and as many accoutrements as were sufficient to equip two hundred horsemen, to with, swords, &c. and that Watts was appointed to command the Creeks and the Cherokees who should be called into the field, and be for war, and that the Creek nation had met in council, and agreed to the appointment.”

It must have been a stirring scene when Watts threw the weight of his influence into the scales, and announced “To war we will go together!”

Chickamauga Wars, theater of operations. via Wikipedia

Chickamauga Wars, theater of operations. via Wikipedia

Based on Finnelson’s and De Raque’s regular reports from Willstown, Blount requested General James Robertson to muster his brigade with which to repel the invaders should they attack the Cumberland country.

Anticipating this precaution, Watts hastened to counter it by a clever deception. He induced Bloody Fellow, who still opposed war, and another chief named the Glass to write Blount a letter calculated to throw him off his guard. They alleged that Robertson, in a meeting with the Chickasaw and Choctaw, had told them that he would sweep clean with their blood any blood they might spill in Nashville.

Bloody Fellow and the Glass wrote that the threat had caused the young men of the aforementioned tribes to plan an attack on the white settlements, but that they, with the aid of Watts and some other headmen, had frustrated it by sending them to their different homes to mind their hunting.

The letter—–>

A talk from the Bloody Fellow to His Excellency Governor Blount dated the Lookout mountain Sept. 10 1792

Friend & Brother, At this time I am in a bad State of Health and as my brother the Glass has told you the reason of our young warriors being assembled together at this time from different parts I overtook them at this place and it was a long time before I and the other headmen could put a stop to their intended proceedings as we much pitied the innocent people that must have suffered on both sides.

It’s but a short time since I came from seeing the President of the United States my tracks are scarce yet blotted out, the talks we had was that we should not war with one another, and that his people should not encroach on our land.

But in place of that they are daily encroaching and building on our land, this is not what he and I agreed upon; I let all my people know what we agreed upon; he was to let the different Governors know so as they might not let the people settle on our land as they have formerly done.

I hear you are displeased with us for holding talks with the Spaniards or any other neighboring power, why should we not talk with our neighbors as we do not want to be at war with any body if we can avoid it.

What I tell you is the truth it has give me a great deal of trouble, but I am glad it was in our power to put a stop to the effusion of blood.

If you was to consider well you would see its more your people’s fault than mine by daily encroaching on our Land and sending threatening talks

if there is any bad people in your land that wants to hurt us I hope you’ll stop them as I have done mine and that they may live in peace one with another and hear no more of war, you’ll likewise please to send to Cumberland and let them know that it’s not our people that may do them any harm for the future as we wish to be at peace with them.

The friends of the White man killer of this Town think very hard of him losing his at your place and the other fellow that was with him, if his creature was proven away he did not steal it but bought of the Creeks, therefore I think the owner ought to pay one half the value.

If they are found pray have them sent to the Hanging Maws. This is all at present from Your Friend & Brother The Bloody Fellow– To his Excellency Gov. Blount

1792 Bloody Fellow to Governor Blount 10th September 1792

Having forwarded this and one other letter, which they hoped would prevent Governor Blount from sending any troops to the relief of the Cumberland, the Indians hastened to take possession of the main roads leading to the Mero District (the Superior Court district that served the Cumberland frontier).

Blount’s desire for peace and his faith in Watts led him straight into the trap. On September 14 he ordered the Knox Regiment and the Mero Brigade to disband; but when four days later he heard, much to his chagrin, that a large force of Indians was crossing the Tennessee, he ordered John Sevier to augment by sevenfold the number of militia companies in the Washington District.

General Robertson, meanwhile, shared none of Blount’s faith in Watts. The reports from Richard Finnelson and Joseph De Raque only supported his undying suspicions of Watts, Bloody Fellow, Glass and any other savage. He had ignored Blount’s order to disband the Mero Brigade.



“Origins of National Indian Policy,” by Cynthia Cumfer, Journal of the Early Republic, 23 (Spring 2003)
Tecumseh: A Life, by John Sugden,Henry Holt and Company, NY, 1998
Chronicles of Oklahoma, Volume 16, No. 1, March, 1938, EASTERN CHEROKEE CHIEFS, By John P. Brown
Bloody Fellow original letter: James Robertson Papers/University of Tennessee Libraries (Knoxville, Tennessee)
The Appalachian Frontier: America’s First Surge Westward, by John Anthony Caruso, University of Tennesse Press, 2003
History of Middle Tennessee: Or Life and Times of General James Robertson, by A.W. Putnam, 1859
Considering one of history’s mysteries: whether a Cherokee operative betrayed his people at the Battle of Buchanan’s Station — and saved Nashville, by Betsy Phillips, September 27, 2012, NashvilleScene.com

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Bloody Fellow – Cherokee diplomacy in a time of war (part 1 of 2)

Posted by Dave Tabler | September 27, 2016

The two diplomatic letters, or talks, as he called them, did not nearly express the Bloody Fellow’s true feelings about the state of affairs between the white settlers of the Cumberland and his own Cherokee people that September of 1792. But as a chief of the Five Lower Towns, it made tactical sense for him to extend the language of peace to Tennessee’s Governor William Blount.

Eastern Cherokee 1790s by Randy Martin / Fineartamerica.com

Eastern Cherokee 1790s by Randy Martin / Fineartamerica.com

He knew full well from the just completed council at Willstown that a three-pronged Cherokee attack on the Kentucky Road, the Walton Road, and on Nashville was imminent. The idea was to offer up this ruse to Blount, in the hope that it would forestall Blount’s suspicions, which might otherwise lead to a counter offensive.

The Bloody Fellow had not volunteered to write this missive, however. The war council assembled at Willstown [near today’s Ft. Payne, AL] had instead selected him to be their mouthpiece, because they assumed whatever he wrote would be believed by the whites.

He had been warmly embraced by none other than George Washington during a diplomatic visit to Philadelphia to air Cherokee grievances in the early months of that same year. Hadn’t Washington conferred upon him the title of ‘General’? The Bloody Fellow was perhaps the only member of his race to receive this honor prior to the Civil War. He had returned with his comrades to his people sporting a scarlet match coat with silver epaulets, broad silver lace and a shining silver star, and vowing eternal gratitude and loyalty to his Great White Father and benefactor.

The Bloody Fellow was not the least bit enthusiastic about this plan to invade. He had spoken forcefully at the Willstown council against the idea of attacking a much larger, better-armed force, but the younger Cherokee, Creek and Chickamauga (Lower Cherokee) braves had cast his views aside.

The Bloody Fellow certainly held no love for the American settlers in his heart; he’d lost his wife’s brother to the white man’s treachery just four years earlier. In 1788, a band of John Sevier’s men had killed Old Tassel, the principal chief of the Cherokee Nation, along with another unarmed, friendly chief, as they approached the whites under a flag of truce. The act was considered an atrocity by the Cherokee, and briefly brought all the Cherokee to support the hostile actions of the warriors following a Cherokee chief named Dragging Canoe, even though Old Tassel’s heir apparent Little Turkey was elected First Beloved Man by the general council of the Cherokee. 

In August that same year, Tennessean Joseph Martin, Brigadier General of the frontier militia, had led an army of five hundred in an unsuccessful attempt to destroy the Five Lower Towns. However, Cherokee warriors had ambushed the white army at the pass of Lookout Mountain, forcing them back in disarray, with the Cherokees in hot pursuit.

General Joseph Martin, ca 1780. Portrait by Robert Kearfoot. via Wikipedia

General Joseph Martin, ca 1780. Portrait by Robert Kearfoot. via Wikipedia

That October, an army of 3,000 Cherokee, led by Bloody Fellow, attacked Gillespie’s Fort, below the mouth of the Little Tennessee River on the Holston. They demanded that the occupants surrender; when the demand was rejected, the Cherokees stormed the fort, killing 28 people, most of them women, and capturing others. Bloody Fellow took fifteen scalps in revenge for his brother in law’s death.

Bloody Fellow left a defiant note at the burning ruins for Sevier and Martin, saying that the killing of women and children was unintended:

“The Bloody Fellow’s talk is that he is now upon his own ground. He is not like you are; for you kill women and children, and he does not…you beguiled the head man (Old Tassel) that was your friend and wanted to keep peace; but you began it, and this is what you get for it. When you move off the land, then we will make peace…Five thousand men is our number.”

Bloody Fellow’s war captains John Watts, Kitegisky, and The Glass also signed the note. Watts had such a close attachment to Old Tassel, his uncle, that he was known as ‘Young Tassel.’

While Bloody Fellow was in Philadelphia, Dragging Canoe died, in March, 1792. John Watts was elected his successor as War Chief in May. Watts was a magnetic personality, an eloquent orator, and a man of proven bravery. The Cherokees flocked to his banner with even more enthusiasm than they had to Dragging Canoe. In addition, a large number of Creek warriors placed themselves under his command.

The Cherokees had long before this time discontinued using bow and arrows in active warfare. Although the bow, at short range, was probably more deadly than the defective guns handled by the settlers, the white man’s weapon was used whenever it could be procured.

That fact was unfortunate from the standpoint of the Cherokees, for it made them entirely dependent on outside sources for their ammunition.

Up to and during the American Revolution, the Cherokees secured their ammunition from the English. The close of the American Revolution would have ended the Indian wars by shutting off their supplies of powder and ball, but for one reason.

By the terms of the treaty which ended the Revolution, Spain was awarded Florida. Furthermore, Spain already controlled the Mississippi and the port at New Orleans. She regarded America’s southern and western settlements as a menace to her sovereignty over both regions, and was willing, even anxious, that they be destroyed. To that end, Spain supplied the Indians with unlimited ammunition, “to be had for the asking,” which enabled the Cherokees to carry on. Arming the Indians looked like a shrewd tactical move to Spain. Either it would drive the U.S. settlers out of an area Spain wanted to control, or it would force the settlers to become Spanish. There was no downside Spain could see to supplying the Indians with weapons — as long as the U.S. had no direct proof they were doing so.

In 1789 North Carolina ceded its western lands to Congress, which organized the ‘Territory South of the River Ohio,’ comprising the present Tennessee. William Blount, friend of Washington and member of the convention which had just framed the United States Constitution, was named Governor.

William Blount, by Washington Bogart Cooper / Tennessee Portrait Project

William Blount, by Washington Bogart Cooper / Tennessee Portrait Project

Governor Blount took up his duties in 1790. His first act was an attempt to end the Indian war by diplomacy. He announced that he would rectify the wrongs done the Indians. Hence, practically every chief of prominence, with the lone exception of Dragging Canoe, attended Blount’s Treaty of Holston in 1791.

At this assemblage, the Cherokees, led by Little Turkey, forcefully shifted their stance away from traditional diplomacy. They placed their emphasis on a sense of Cherokee power among those attending, instead of embracing the importance of a peaceful state of mind. The chiefs opened the treaty conference with the eagle tail dance. Blount thought the Cherokees were bestowing an honor not previously given to an American treaty participant. In fact, the Cherokees performed the eagle tail dance to inculcate a warlike spirit in the young and to symbolize victory.

The Indians had understood that Blount would remove white settlers from Indian land. They were bitterly disappointed when, instead of removing the settlers, he proposed to buy the land which had been wrongfully taken. (Blount was a land speculator with extensive holdings in the Tennessee region, and his use of treaty talks to advance his land interests quickly earned him a Cherokee name — the Dirt Captain.)

John Watts and Bloody Fellow, who spoke for the Cherokees, protested. Watts, overcome by the memory of the treacherous death of his uncle, withdrew from the treaty.

Blount offered the Cherokees some presents, and an annuity of $1000.00 for the land. “It would not buy a breech cloth for each member of my Nation!” Bloody Fellow replied, but signed the treaty, feeling himself pressured to do so.

This paltry annuity is what had prompted the Bloody Fellow (without consulting Blount further), to set out at the head of the delegation for Philadelphia, to attempt to secure better terms from President Washington. The effort resulted in an increase of the Cherokee annuity to $1500.00 per year.

—- to be continued

(sources will be listed in part 2)

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We used to catch the cat on a trot line

Posted by Dave Tabler | September 26, 2016

“Us kids used to go down and we’d find a little hole, maybe big as this room, and these suckers had got in there, water was runnin’ into it, and the water’d get up and these suckers wouldn’t bite. You could take your hook and put a worm down there, and they’d swim all the way around it, same as a big ole bass. They had what we call white bass and speckled bass. Now, the speckled bass’d bite.

The Little River, Lookout Mountain, AL“But them white ‘uns would swim up thata way, they just ease up to it. You could take a worm and throw it down, the water was just clear as crystal, and it’d wiggle down on a rock, and these ole bass and suckers and things’d come up and swim over it two, three times, then directly ease down and pick it up. You could catch some pretty big catfish and oh, some five or six pound bass. We used to catch the cat on a trot line.

“Wasn’t but one place to have a boat down there, and that was what they called the Yonker hole. All them holes in that gulf, I can’t call ‘em all by name, but it used to be, when I was a kid, people’d know ‘em by a certain name. Like, old man Yonker lived right up on top of the canyon. And at the old Kean place, there used to be a ladder to go down them rocks to get in to that Yonker hole.

“Had a big ladder there that went off down the rock about twenty, thirty feet straight down, then they had a trail to get down. But old man Yonker lived on the Cherokee side and they called it the Yonker hole. It’s a big hole with water in it, and we used trot lines in it, and used to catch a lot of fish.”

C.A. Helms
Lookout Mountain, AL
b. early 1900s
interviewed at age 83

source: www.landmarksdekalbal.org/communities/MaysGulf.html

Yonker+hole Lookout+Mountain+AL bass+fishing appalachia appalachia+history appalachian+culture appalachian+history history+of+appalachia

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