All I want for Christmas is a whimmy diddle

Posted by Dave Tabler | December 18, 2017

The whimmy diddle (sometimes called a Hooey Stick or Gee-Haw) is an Appalachian folk toy that has been around for centuries. It’s fashioned from two sticks of laurel or rhododendron into a rubbing stick and a slightly thicker notched stick. The whimmy diddle makes a characteristic sound when the one stick is rubbed back and forth across deep notches in the other. A spinner nailed to one end of the serrated stick revolves in response to the vibrations.

By knowing the secret of the whimmy diddle you can make the spinner turn right or left at will, hence, the name “gee-haw.” Of course, you should try to keep time to music. Legend has it these “gee” and “haw” movements also serve as a reliable a lie detector, but if you believe that there’s a bridge in Brooklyn you might be interested in buying.The gee and the haw commands come from the days when horses and mules pulled wagons and plows.

Today, thousands of wooden versions are sold each year, and a Gee Haw Whimmy Diddle Competition is held every summer at Asheville NC’s Folk Art Center. The top whimmy diddlers receive moon pies and T-shirts. The champion is presented with a certificate, and of course entitled to all the bragging rights.

4 Responses

  • hmdenton says:

    I will be happy to provide the Gee-Haw sticks for you.

    Send contact NFO.

  • hmdenton says:

    I will be happy to provide the Gee-Haw sticks for you.

    Send contact NFO.

  • I would love to get in touch with the person who is willing to provide the gee-haw sticks. I would enjoy including a whimmy diddle competition at one of our events this summer. Sounds like so much fun..

    Thanks, JOY

  • Zach Bleacher says:

    Hello! Thanks for the great article! I am attempting to research the Whimmydiddle (Hooey Stick, Voodoo Wand, Alchemist’s Stick, etc) to its earliest source. Perhaps a written reference? Since its resurgence in the Sixties, I can’t seem to find anything earlier —except an “Old Timer’s” recollection— than just before the turn of the century. I’ve read elsewhere that it can be traced to the Cherokee & possibly to Medieval Europe (Czechoslovakia?) as well as Appalachia. Any help is appreciated.

    Many thanks in advance!

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Chinese firecrackers provided plenty of Christmas joking

Posted by Dave Tabler | December 15, 2017

Clarence Nixon wrote of his father’s store in his book Possum Trot, “We stocked up with fruit in December, and I still think of Christmas when I smell oranges in the country.”

The South was a land of deep sentimentality. Family ties were close, and the hard years following the war tended to knit them even more securely. Christmas was a time of family re-dedication and a season of erasing old and irritating scars of discord. It was a period for visiting and feasting.

Celebration of the holiday was the one institution which came through the war unchanged except for the matter of simplification. Until 1915 rural observance was uncontaminated by commercialization. Simple gifts were passed around, and these, as a matter of course, came from the country store.

Much of the masculine taste in celebration ran to boisterous forms of expression. For more than fifty years the liquor barrel furnished ample cheer for all customers who could rake together enough cash or stretch their credit to buy a quart of Kentucky or Maryland bourbon, or a half-gallon of North Carolina corn. A quart of whisky was admittedly a vigorous start toward a glorious Christmas season.

For the temperate, however, a package of firecrackers was enough holiday amusement. One little nickel package of Chinese firecrackers provided plenty of Christmas joking and pranking. A favorite stunt was to explode the tiny cylinders at the heel of some humorless deacon, with the hope of starting him into cussing. Another was setting them off near a pair of mules in a storehouse yard. The number of runaways made many a good celebrant regret there was such a thing as Christmas. But there was the more pleasant aspect to this form of amusement.

chinese firecrackersThousands of country children were happier waking up in a cold farmhouse on Christmas morning because Santa Claus had not forgotten the firecrackers and Roman candles. There were also torpedoes, which exploded with thunderous repercussions when dashed on the floor underneath girls’ feet, and Roman candles gave great gusto to the Christmas celebration.

They lifted the holiday spirit high into the air in sputtering balls of varicolored fire followed by sulfurous tails which outdid Halley’s Comet in the eyes of the backwoods cotton farmers. Sometimes they were used in sham battles, which generally wound up unhappily. But all in all, there was something in the violent cracking of fireworks that gave zest to Christmas week, and which marked the completion of one crop year and the beginning of another.


‘A Little Bit of Santa Claus’
From Pills, Petticoats, and Plows: The Southern Country Store
By Thomas D. Clark
Reprinted in A Kentucky Christmas, University Press of
Kentucky Press, 2003

Christmas+in+Appalachia chinese+firecrackers appalachia appalachian+culture appalachian+mountains+history

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Indian Trail Trees

Posted by Dave Tabler | December 14, 2017

Ever since the beginning of human existence trees have played an important role in the growing culture of man.  Primitive man used them in various ways as means of providing him not only with food, but also with shelter, protection and warmth.

As man grew in intelligence, he found that trees could further be used as reliable landmarks, and as such they provided him with another useful instrument.  He learned that by using them as guideposts he could travel from place to place without fear of becoming lost.  He could also use them as means of indicating to other fellow men the locations of desirable routes of travel.

Two trail trees identified by the Mountain Stewards project. An accompanying photo indicates that the second tree is an oak. Southern Appalachian trees tend to cluster in former Cherokee lands. Core samples from many of the identified trees date their age to the late 1700s.

Two trail trees identified by the Mountain Stewards project. An accompanying photo indicates that the second tree is an oak. The trees tend to cluster in former Cherokee lands. Core samples from many of the identified trees date their age to the late 1700s.

This led to the development of a system whereby certain trees could be identified as definite trail markers.  Primitive man noticed that trees do not heighten en masse, but that they grow from their tips.  He also observed that they do not turn on an axis while growing, but that once established they maintain a fixed position.

Experiment showed him that if a young tree were bent in some unnatural position without being broken, and were fastened securely, it would continue to grow, forever after maintaining the bent position.  With this as a means, it was possible to deform the trees deliberately so that they could easily be distinguished from the other trees in the forest.

There developed a custom of marking trails through the forests by bending saplings and securing them in such positions that their directions of bend indicated the directions of the routes to be followed.  A line of similarly bent trees thus established a continuous uninterrupted route of travel which could readily be followed.

After being bent, the young trees were fastened by one of several methods. Sometimes the trees were weighted down with a rock, sometimes a pile of dirt was used, and often the tree was tied in position with a length of rawhide, a strip of bark, or a tough vine.  The various methods used in each case were dependent largely upon the custom and ingenuity of the individual performing the work, and the materials at hand.

When America was introduced to the rest of the civilized world, this method of marking trails was in use by tribes of Indians inhabiting the forested regions of the eastern part of what was later to become the United States.  In passing, the Red Man left behind him his forest trails marked by numerous curiously bent trail trees.

In marking a trail, after bending and fastening the young trees, the Indian would usually carve upon them his individual or clan insignia.  Not every tree along the route of travel was bent, it being advisable to do so only at intervals.  Natives were thus able to follow a pre-established trail by continuing in the direction indicated from one bent tree to the next.  If the trail crossed a non-wooded area, some other system of marking had to be resorted to, such as the placing of stone pile, planting of poles, or the appropriate use of other materials.  The use of living trees was, of course, the most permanent, and therefore the most desirable method.

The Mountain Stewards initiated The Trail Tree Project in 2007 to try to learn more about the history and origin of the trail trees. In the places where trail trees have been mapped, such as Sassafras Mountain in North Georgia, they seem to connect known settlements.  See

The Mountain Stewards initiated The Trail Tree Project in 2007 to try to learn more about the history and origin of the trail trees. In the places where trail trees have been mapped, such as Sassafras Mountain in North Georgia, they seem to connect known settlements. See

Because of their longevity, many of these old Indian trail trees, now gnarled with age, may have been standing in various parts of the country, still marking the sites of former trails.  Modern civic development takes it toll of these trees from time to time, and the gaps between them are becoming wider and wider.

The bending and the fastening of trees as trail markers had a definite effect upon the subsequent development of the trees.  They were severely stunted, but nevertheless continued to grow.  The original trunk of a tree having been bent down to the ground necessitated the establishment of one or more secondary trunks to take the place of the original one. These secondary trunks branched and bore leaves in the normal manner.  They may have originated from former branches or may have issued forth as entirely new systems.

In most cases the extremities of the original bent over trunks later decayed away.  Sometimes, however, the trunk tip would take root at its point of contact with the ground, and the tree would continue its development with two sets of roots.

Except that they have increased in diameter, the bent portions of these trees are still pointing in the same manner and directions as when first bent more than a hundred years ago.  Occasionlly it was necessary for an Indian to place a trail sign at a place where no small tree was growing which he could conveniently bend.  In such a case, the bending of the lowermost branch of a large tree was occasionally resorted to.

The question has often been asked as to whether the Indians used selection in their choice of trees—using only one kind throughout a single trail.  While this may have been so in limited cases, it could not always hold true.  Trees of the same species ordinarily grow in groves, and a trail extending for a long distance would pass through areas containing different types of trees.  In such a case the Indian would actually be prevented from exercising selection. He would necessarily have had to use whatever kind of trees happened to be growing along the same route at the time.

Difficulty in differentiating between Indian trail trees and the ordinary crooked or deformed trees often confronts persons untrained in the observation of them.  In viewing such trees, one must be able to ascertain whether their shapes are the results of accidental, intentional, or natural causes. Wind, sleet, lightning, heavy snows, or depredations by animals may cause accidental deformities in a tree.

A careful examination of the tree will disclose such a fact inasmuch as serious injuries always leave their scars.  Another common cause of accidental deformities is the falling of a larger tree upon a smaller and pinning it down.  When such is the case, the angle of bend is relatively long and gentle, quite unlike the abrupt angle used by the Indians.  Natural causes are frequently unaccountable and result in deviating directions taken by the tree trunk while it is growing.

Some kinds of tree have greater tendencies to develop crooked stems than others, and such deviations present a different appearance than the methodical bend used by the Indians.

Indian trail trees still exist in many states throughout the Mississippi Valley and eastward.  They seem to be most numerous in Kentucky, Ohio, Illinois Wisconsin, Michigan, Indiana and Missouri.

It is unfortunate that these old Indian landmarks are fast disappearing.  The ages of many of them antedate that of our government.  Only a short time longer, and the last of them will have disappeared forever from our midst, as did the Indians who bent them.

“Indian Trail Trees,” by Raymond E. Janssen, American Forests magazine, July 1934, from Laura Hubler/Dorothy Moore Archives at The Arkansas Folk Museum

38 Responses

  • Great info. I came across one outside of a local Museum and the museum has it roped off with a plaque by it explaining what it is. The tree is HUGE so for sure it’s very old. How can I find out where to locate other such trees? Is there a directory anywhere? After all, these are Native American landmarks and should be treasured, once these trees dye, there are no more being created to carry on the tradition.

  • Dave Tabler says:

    There is a directory. Check out

  • HistoryJoe says:

    Thanks for posting this article. I ran across one of these in north Georgia near Amicalola Falls and kind of knew the story behind them but this really fleshed it out. You rock!

  • Colbert Cook says:

    You might be interested to know that this was practiced by the Ute Nation as well. Please look up “culturally modified trees” or Celinda Kaelin or even Ute medicine tree.

    Celinda’s story on the Pike’s Peak Historical Society’s website should prove quite interesting.

  • alexander1810 says:

    Great article, I have heard of these trees growing up. I also was told that Indians would use this method of marking things of value IE herbs medical plants etc
    I have ,what I believe to be one of there trees on my property in Paulding Co Georgia

  • In Patrick County,Virginia there’s a small tract of land that’s been in our family since the mid-seventeen hundreds.

    There were three white oak ‘trail trees’ along a ridge that led down to a spring that still today has wonderful tasting water and has a good flow even in times of drought. Interestingly a spring on the opposite side of the ridge has an odd and sometimes bitter taste to it.

    Unfortunately the trees were logged well over twenty-five years ago. As a teenager, they always evoked a sense of wonder within me. I grieve over their loss. Some loggers don’t cut them but many obviously do.

    While bow hunting, I’ve found several projectile points along the mountainside while following ancient game trails for deer.

  • Steve Hammack says:

    I’ve been aware of a couple of these trees on our property for many years, never knowing what they were. My brother has investigated this and has found yet another. We are in south central Va. (Pittsylvania Co.). We will likely submit to a registry. I look forward to learning more. Thank you for your efforts here.

  • Stacy Hartley says:

    Hello! I have what I believe to be a Cherokee Indian marked tree in my front yard! I will post a picture tomorrow! I live in KY and the tree is on the edge of a short cliff (maybe 20 feet)The interesting thing is, the only real “landmark” of any interest, (in 2013 of course) is a pond and a creek, and a few miles past that is the Green River which is a fairly large river for this area. Maybe they were marking the way towards water? Pretty interesting!

  • Kay Allen says:

    We have 2 creek lots in Ellijay GA in different locations and both have Indian trail trees.

  • Linda W says:

    My mother used to point these out on hikes. She called them Indian Markers.

  • Renee W says:

    We have 3 on our land in southern MO.

  • David Heimel says:

    One such tree that I cannot prove but believe because of my own research to be and old Indian Trail marker of a crooked lower limb, can be seen in Downtown Bentonville, Arkansas In the yard at 306 North Main Street. In fact It is in the front Yard of The
    Victoria Bed & Breakfast which by the way is a wonderful place to stay when you visit the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art where the 33 million dollar “Kindred Spirits” now resides. Situated just 2 blocks north of the original 5 and 10 and the Sam Walton/Walmart Museum situated on the SW corner of the Square. The First Friday of Every month the street is blocked off and there is live music and events.

  • Don says:

    There is a crazy looking one- similar to a deer head with antlers perphaps, on the trail to Skinny Dip Falls near Brevard NC

  • Found a few of these near Lake Lanier Forsyth county. Interesting and fascinating. I wonder what they are pointing to. Like to send pictures. One tree we named Dr Seuss

  • Bill says:

    There are a few of these in Linn Co, Missouri.

  • Computer Don says:

    I have found some Indian trail trees up here in Cleveland Ohio. Thanks for this, I find such great info on the computer. It supports my theory that computers are the best thing that ever happened to man.

  • Brooke says:

    We definitely have one located in our backyard in Maryland! It’s near a stream area that’s never been logged. There are some enormous trees in the woods behind our house. Is there a way to report and record it somewhere? Or make sure it remains preserved? It’s a huge sycamore. My brother and I used to play on it as kids pretending it was a dinosaur because of it’s shape :P So amazing the history behind it! I had no idea. Thank you for this article.

  • […] 1. Some Native American tribes intentionally bent trees to mark trails and many of those trees still remain today as hidden monuments. – Source […]

  • Nick says:

    Here’s an article I published with some colleagues this year that provides an overview of existing research on trail trees in North America:

  • Robert Phillips says:

    You cant help but wonder how in the world did the tree in our back yard get to look as it does. Now it makes sense. The Catawba river is less than a mile away, the Yadkin river and Brushy mountain area 20 miles away (Daniel Boone territory ) and 12 miles from Ft. Dobbs. The trail is on a ridge with the nose pointing towards Buffalo Shoals creek. I have to go exploring to see if I can find more. Thanks for the info, this is great stuff.

  • Judy Menzies says:

    All of you that have Trail Trees in any area can contact Don Wells at for information on how to get your trees on the National Database. Everything is kept confidential. Ken and I are designated to check the trees in northeast Georgia. If you need to have some trees checked and measured, etc., contact us at 727-776-7611 to get this done. We come to the tree, take the measurements, pictures and send the information to Don Wells and he then lets us know if the tree is indeed a Trail Tree and if it is, he adds it to the national data base. Thanks, Judy and Ken

  • Joy lowet says:

    There are two trees about 10′ from eachother bent the same way on Dutch Ridge Rd. In Oswego NY

  • […] 1. Some Native American tribes intentionally bent trees to mark trails and many remain today as hidden monuments. – Source […]

  • James Brian Moore says:

    I have some pics in Arkansas,point to a shelter, please email me so I can share pics

  • Rodger hall says:

    I live in extreme North Georgia and have walked a ridge for years just for exercise and animal watching have found a tree in plain sight that ridge had been logged many a years ago and survey marked both the loggers of this region and surveyors knew the importance of this tree and did not cut it down due to respect I found a similar tree on neighbors property and I then realized they line up and mark a spring

  • […] trails that predate the Appalachian Trail, still dot the forest in the artificial shape of some trees, another example of how humans can leave a lasting impact on the land and leave a legacy of their […]

  • Gretchen says:

    I was visiting friends in the Cumberland, MD area this past weekend and we went just over the border into West Virginia for a dinner party. Our hosts have a tree on their property and it’s quite large in circumference. As soon as I saw the tree I knew what it was and asked if there was a natural spring nearby and they owner pointed in the direction the tree was pointing to. I’m sure there is an old trail on their property and somewhere on that mountain but didn’t get a chance before it got dark. The tree was so beautiful.

  • Mike Tuohy says:

    It would be useful if one of you experts could list some ways to at least eliminate suspect marker trees using available information. For instance, in Georgia, relatively fast-growing trees like yellow poplars, sycamores, red maples and river birches could be eliminated as candidates unless they have enormous trunks. I haven’t seen any of these that could date back to the Trail of Tears (1830s) and I seriously doubt Indians were marking trails much after that in north Georgia yet I saw a poplar labeled with a bronze plaque as a trail marker in Forsyth County by Lake Lanier. This same area shows signs of contour plowing and I would bet money the area has been logged several times since 1900. Aerial photos from the Soil Conservation Service from the 1930s on can also reveal the truth there. The credibility of this field is undermined when people react to what they want to believe and designate a tree that speaks to them as a marker. I think some people treat it like an Easter Egg hunt and want to fill their baskets with marker trees. Growth rates and site history resources are readily available online.

  • jeff Brown says:

    I found one in Mansfield CT.
    So far, I am getting doubts from various people that it is.

  • Phil says:

    These trees are all over the Linville Gorge in North Carolina. They mark some of the trails and there are some located above some of the permanent camping spots.

  • Can anyone please help me locate some of these trees here in South western va? I live in Redford and there are lots of native American and early pioneer sites scattered around the area, also the Appalachian trail is not very far from me. I have seen some of these trees around near Blacksburg at pandapus pond which is very close to the trail.

  • […] Have you ever come across a strangely shaped tree and wondered if there was a story behind its curved trunk? Chances are great that the tree does have a unique history and it might date back to the late 1700s. […]

  • Marilyn R Blease says:

    We have one on our property in chappells sc. I am glad to know what it is. So beautiful

  • Jodie Dupree says:

    There is one of these trees with the notch or nose on it which is a tell tale sign in Clayton, NC. Locally we had plenty of Cherokee and Powhatan Indians. If you go in the direction this one points it leads to flowing water in a deep creek.

  • Jill Blankenship says:

    I found a trail tree in the hills of Central Arkansas, USA. If there was a way to attach, I would gladly post a picture of it. They are amazing. I was told to dig under it. What on earth do you suppose I would find?

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The Overalls Club Movement of 1920

Posted by Dave Tabler | December 13, 2017

“The revolt against the high cost of living, expressed in the nation-wide formation of old-clothes leagues, overalls clubs, and lunchbasket clubs, is highly significant in that it is the first indication of protest to come from a class which has been a silent and patient sufferer during all the clashes that have taken place between capital and labor in recent years,” said the unsigned op-ed author of the Men & Things column in the April 1920 issue of American Medicine.

Men who joined these clubs pledged to wear overalls, and women to wear gingham, until prices became less prohibitive. They formed overalls clubs, held parades, threw parties, went to church, and even got married in overalls.

Some members of the Overalls Club of Pickens, SC. Photo courtesy William and Anita Newman Library, Baruch College, CUNY

Some members of the Overalls Club of Pickens, SC. Photo courtesy William and Anita Newman Library, Baruch College, CUNY

Cheap blue denim work overalls like farmers or laborers wore were the weapon of choice, but people who couldn’t find those wore various other types of work clothes or whatever old clothes they had to hand.

The movement caught on in Birmingham, Wilmington, Savannah, New Orleans, and other southern cities, then spread to other regions of the country. The employees and officers of various companies showed up at the office outfitted in overalls. The cotton mill owners of New England issued statements denouncing the Southern cities, where the movement had its birth, and alleging that the cotton-growers of the South had launched the movement to increase the price of cotton.

In Washington, Representative William David Upshaw of Atlanta formed an “overall brigade” in the House of Representatives, and secretaries in the Capitol showed up for work in overalls. The Assistant Post Master General sent out a directive to postmasters permitting postal employees to make their rounds in overalls.

The various “overalls clubs” and “old clothes clubs” sent petitions to mayors, governors and diverse other notables protesting high clothing prices. “The movement appears to have lasted from March to June or July of 1920, then faded away as the novelty wore off,” says Paul Eugen Camp, who works in the Special Collections at the University of South Florida library.

“Everybody seems to have had quite a good time protesting in their overalls, but I don’t know if the movement actually had much effect on the cost of clothing.”

Sources: NY Times: April 15, 1920, “Overalls Clubs Spread in South and West; National Organization is Now Started,” Special to The New York Times, Page 15
NY Times: April 15, 1920, “UPSHAW’S OVERALLS STARTLE CONGRESS,” Special to The New York Times, Page 7
American Medicine, April 1920 “Old Clothes and Lunch Baskets,” p. 187
The Argus, [Melbourne, Australia], June 26, 1920, “American Life: Overalls Craze,” pg. 6

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Christmas Eve on Lonesome

Posted by Dave Tabler | December 12, 2017

It was Christmas Eve on Lonesome. But nobody on Lonesome knew that it was Christmas Eve, although a child of the outer world could have guessed it, even out in those wilds where Lonesome slipped from one lone log cabin high up the steeps, down through a stretch of jungled darkness to another lone cabin at the mouth of the stream.

There was the holy hush in the gray twilight that comes only on Christmas Eve. There were the big flakes of snow that fell as they never fall except on Christmas Eve. There was a snowy man on horseback in a big coat, and with saddle-pockets that might have been bursting with toys for children in the little cabin at the head of the stream.

man in snow on horsebackBut not even he knew that it was Christmas Eve. He was thinking of Christmas Eve, but it was of the Christmas Eve of the year before, when he sat in prison with a hundred other men in stripes, and listened to the chaplain talk of peace and good will to all men upon earth, when he had forgotten all men upon earth but one, and had only hatred in his heart for him.
—Excerpt from Christmas Eve on Lonesome and Other Stories, John Fox, Jr. New Hampshire: Ayer Co., 1904.

John Fox Jr. (1862-1919) wrote primarily on life in rural Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia. Born in Stony Point, KY, he made his name as a novelist after settling in Big Stone Gap, VA, where he spent the last 29 years of his life.

His wildly popular romance/coming-of-age story The Trail of the Lonesome Pine (1908) tells the vivid story of coal engineer Jack Hale falling in love with mountain girl June Tolliver. That bestseller, and The Little Shepherd of Kingdom Come (1903), were adapted for the big screen in a few different versions in 1912, 1916, and 1936.

Fox gave public lectures to raise money and during one such lecture met Theodore Roosevelt, who later invited Fox to give readings at the White House. Roosevelt became a life-long friend of Fox’s.

Counting among his friends other such popular writers as Richard Harding Davis, Jack London, and Booth Tarkington, Fox was awarded many honors in his lifetime. These included election to membership in the National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1899 and a medal for his literary contributions from the Emperor of Japan. His dedication and lobbying led to the passing of the Federal Copyright Act.


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